Adaptation of the Global Citizenship Scale-Short Form (GCS-SF) into Turkish

  • Melehat Gezer Dicle University
  • Mustafa İLHAN Dicle University


In present study, we aimed to adapt the GCS–SF, which was developed by Moaris and Ogden (2011) and its short form was created by Lo et al. (2016), into Turkish. We conducted our research on 582 undergraduates. After we divided dataset into two in order to apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in the one half and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the other half, and purified the both datasets from outliers, we carried out EFA on the data of 280 participants and performed CFA on the data of 282 participants. In EFA, we reached a three-dimensional structure that overlaps with the original form of the scale, accounts 43.50% of the total variance, and has factor loadings between .333 and .830. We named the emerging dimensions as Global Civic Engagement, Social Responsibility and Global Competence taking into accounts the labels in the original scale. The CFA outputs revealed that the fit indices of the three-dimensional model remained within acceptable limits. In the reliability and item analysis, we operated the data file of 562 undergraduates, consisting of a combination of datasets in which EFA and CFA were done. As a result of item analysis, we determined that the single item-rest of items correlations varied between .330 and .756. Reliability analysis showed that McDonald’s ω coefficients of the whole scale and its sub-dimensions ranged from .654 to .886. All these results signify that the GCS–SF’s Turkish version yields valid and reliable measures.

How to Cite
GEZER, Melehat; İLHAN, Mustafa. Adaptation of the Global Citizenship Scale-Short Form (GCS-SF) into Turkish. Başkent University Journal of Education, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 135-147, jan. 2023. ISSN 2148-3272. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 oct. 2023.
Makaleler / Articles